Central Italy enlarged to more clearly show the Papal States
Map number 4: shows the empire of Charlemagne in 814. It would later be passed on in the name of the Holy Roman Empire. By this time Charlemagne wore the title of Emperor of the Romans. The Patrimony of Peter included all three Papal states by 800, which are clearly marked on this map. Also on this map see the extent of Arab conquests and the Eastern Roman Empire now called Byzantine indicated by the shaded portions.
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