Map number 5: is dated around 840. Charlemagne had been crowned the emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo in the year 800 on December 25 in St, Peter's in Rome.. The Papal States had already been acquired, beginning in 755. Upon his death, Charlemagne's empire had been divided by his three sons. Lothair inherited the Imperial crown. Note the Papal States on the map, called the States of the Church, which indicates the Pope was a temporal ruler as well as spiritual, from this time with only brief intermissions due to wars until 1870.
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