The Great Isaiah Scroll 44:23 to 45:21
This is the 2nd page of 4 on the 12th strip of leather that makes up the scroll. The most apparent anomaly on this page is the lacuna at the mid-bottom right of the page. The lacuna extends from line 16 to line 24 and is about 3/4 of an inch wide at the widest. The lacuna is associated with a fold or crease in the leather that matches the right margin of text from the top of the page through line 25 or slightly below the lacuna. A continuation of the crease follows the left line of the lacuna from line 25 to the bottom of the page. There is a similar crease on the left side of the page from top to bottom that is close to the left margin and actually matches the left margin in a number of lines (approx. 12 lines). The crease at the right margin may be evidence of a light line having been originally drawn to make a guide for a straight right margin and then later erased. This has been noticed and discussed in an earlier page. The impression of the line here may have been deeper on this page and then with usage, age and a careless fold may have resulted in the appearance of the crease and damage that created the lacuna. See creases in introductory pages.
Two letters are difficult to read: A resh is nearly obliterated by the crease at the left at the end of line 28 and just below it the shin in the last line is divided and made difficult to read.
Paragraphs and Spatiums:
Spatiums are the most significant textual dividers on this page. They are large spatiums marking divisions in thought in the text as they appeared to the original scribe. Line 1 = 44:24 and line 6: = the beginning of chapter 45. Line 15: sets off vss 45:9, 10 and line 17 = vs 45:11 and line 24: separates the last thought of the next to last paragraph from the rest of that paragraph while retaining it in the paragraph.
New paragraphs begin line 14; = 45:8; and line 15 = 45:9; line 21 = 45:14; and line 26 = 45:18.
Words Missing in the Lacuna:
The usual correspondence of the Q text with the M text makes the restoration of the missing letters, words, and partial words in lines 16 to 24 a simple task of copying from the M text with exceptions as below.. In line 16: "le-yo" is missing from "le-yotsro" ( to his fashioner) and in line 17: "mah te" is missing from "mah tehiliyn" (What have you painfully borne). The waw and nun anomalies in the word "tehiliyn" will be cited under Variations below. Line 18: "yaday te-" is missing from "yaday te-tsav-vuniy" (my hands, you [may] command me). Line 19: "tseba'am" (their hosts or armies) is the missing word and in line 20: " 'iriy ve-galu" is missing from " 'iriy ve-galutiy' " (my city and my captives); and in line 21: the 1st two words of vs 14 "ko' 'amar" (thus says) is missing; and in line 22: " 'achoreykemah ye:-" is missing from " 'achoreykemah ye:lku" (they shall come after you); and in line 23: " 'ephes 'elo" is missing from " 'ephes 'elohiym" (no other gods), and in line 24: "chdayv" is missing from "yachdayv" (together). The next letter in M is "he" of qal pf 3mpl of "halak" thus "halku" But the Q text has a waw consec. imper. 3mpl "ve-ye:lku" (and they shall go) The first stroke visible on this line therefore is not the end of a missing "he" but a waw.
The horizontal mark between the 1st and 2nd line closes the section which also was marked by a large spatium as a closure of a section by the original scribe. The section marked includes chapter 44 1 to 23 which includes the material against the foolishness of making idols and the appeal to believe in the greatness of YHWH. There is a horizontal mark at the end of 45:10 in line 17. It is difficult to tell whether this mark belongs to the first mark at the top of the page since there is no corresponding closing mark on this nor the next page.
The "derby hat" symbol (see page 28) marks the beginning of chapter 45 which contains the most outstanding prophecies about Cyrus even naming him by name.
Editorial additions to the text:
Line 2: "badiym" (liars) is written above the last word in line 2 to correct the text for an omission. The word appears in M. Line 3: above the end of the 2nd word is a clumsily formed "chokmiym" (sages or wise men) inserted to correct the text for an omission.. Line 6: a yod is added between the 1st two words. the most likely reason is it is an addition to the last letter of the 1st word making "heykel" (temple) [the building] to read "heykliy" (my temple). Line 10: a yod is written above the next to last word which is a misspelling of " 'ekaneka" (I have called you). The yod seems to be used as a semi-vowel to indicate the addition of a suffix. and the result in Q is "hekaneykah" Line 17: Q editor corrects an omission by adding "qadosh yisrael" ([the] holy one of Israel) as M reads.
Q Scribal Spelling:
See the preceding pages for descriptions of the regular use of waw as a vowel indication and interchange of waw and yod. The use of "he" as an addition to the end of word especially to the end of 2ms suffixes with one exception on this page line 5: 1st word.
Variations in Q from the Masoretic Text:
Line 2: 10th and 11th words: Q = 2 words "miy' and 'itiy" interog pr noun "miy" (who) with aleph and prep " 'eth" (with) + 1sing suf. (who was with me?) and M = "me:'itiy" prep, min (from) + prep with + 1sing suf: the idiom meaning "by myself" is the M qerey while the kituv of M agrees with Q..
Line 3: 5th word: Q spells "yesakel" with samek and M spells it with sin.
Line 6: 2nd word: Q = "tiyasad" qal pf 2fs (you shall be founded) and M = "tiv-vase:d" 2nd stem pf 2fs (your foundation shall be laid).
Line 7: 9th word: Q= "delatoth" (gates) and M = "delatayim" ( a pair of gates).
Line 8: 3rd word: Q = "ve-harriym" (and mountainous area) and M = "ve-haduriym" (and crooked places). May just be careless copying by the Scribe in distinguishing daleth and resh which is frequent.
Line 9: next to last word: Q = spelling of "qore:' " (call) with final "he" instead of aleph. But it is spelled correctly with aleph in line 10: 8th word.
Line 10: next to last word: as also written above: Q = a yod is written above the next to last word which is a misspelling of " 'ekaneka" (I have called you). The yod seems to be used as a semi-vowel to indicate the addition of a suffix. and the result in Q is "hekaneykah"
Line 12: next to last word: Q = part. "bore' " (create) is spelled with "he" here and in line 13: 3rd word, and in line 26: 5th word, instead of aleph. Spelled correctly in line 27: 4th word.
Line 13: 2nd word: Q = "tov" (good) and M = "shalom" (peace).
Line 14: 1st word: Q = "hari'iy" [waw as final?] thus imperative. (thunder; idio. pour down) and M = "har 'iyphu" imperative (rain down)
Line 14: 5th word: Q = "ve-yizal" from "nazal" (and let it pour down) and M = no conj "yizlu" (let them pour down).
Line 14 and 15: There is a portion of vs 8 missing from the Q text. There is a large spatium or indentation at the beginning of line 15. This may be left to indicate the omission of several words. The Masoretic text marks the end of verse 8 with a samek (closed symbol) But this in itself does not require so large a spatium. A small indentation suffices in most places to indicate a new paragraph when the preceding line has been filled to the left margin. Beside the omission (noted last here) the reading of the first portion of vs 8 in line 14 is different in the Q text.. After the 6th word in line 14 Q reads "ha-'omer le-'arets ve-yiphrach yesha' yitsdaqah tatsmiyach" (speak to the earth and let it sprout salvation, let righteousness be made to spring forth) while M reads for the same section (let the earth open and let it bear the fruit of salvation and let righteousness spring up together) from the word together M continues on with the rest of the verse not found in Q ( 4 words in Heb.) "I am YHWH I have created it."
Line 15: next to last word: Q = "hoy" (woe) not found in M.
Line 16: 1st word: Q = an omission of "chomer" (clay) found in M. This section in Q reads: "Woe to the one saying to his fashioner, what are you making?" and M reads : "Shall the clay say to his fashioner what are you making?" 6th word: Q = " 'adam" not found in M.
Line 17: 2nd word; (1st after lacuna): Q = "tehiyliyn" verb imp 2fs (with euphonic nun) In Q the medial yod has waw as a substitute. Waw standing for yod is a frequent mechanism of the Q scribe..
Line 22: 5th and 7th words: Q = an appended yod to the end of " 'elayik" (upon you).
Line 23: words 4, 6, and 9 have a yod added to the kaf 2nd person suffix. This is to show it is a feminine suffix. See much more on this key point in Q grammar of adding yod to confirm a feminine suffix in the introduction.
Line 24: 1st 2 words: Q = lacuna as described above "chdayv" is missing from "yachdayv" (together). The next letter in M is "he" of qal pf 3mpl of "halak" thus "halku" But the Q text has a waw consec. imper. 3mpl "ve-ye:lku" (and they shall go) The first stroke visible on this line therefore is not the end of a missing "he" but a waw.
Line 26: 9th word and last word: Q = conj waw not in M.
Line 27: 3rd word: Q = prep lamed on "tohu" (empty or void) not in M.
Line 29: 7th word: Q = ve-'itiyv" (and with him) and M = "yachdav" (together)